Academic papers


SSRN | A Multitemporal Snapshot of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Israel-Gaza Conflict

This paper presents an update to the previously published analysis of the first 60 days of the Israel-Gaza conflict, covering 120 days. The updated estimation proposes that the projected emissions from the first 120 days of the conflict were greater than the annual emissions of 26 individual countries and territories.

Journal of Global Security Studies: On (In-)Secure Grounds: How Military Forces Interact with Global Environmental Change

Military forces contribute to, struggle with, and respond to global environmental change. This entangles them ambiguously with their ecological environment. This article, from Anselm Vogler, reviews these entanglements.

SSRN | A Multitemporal Snapshot of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Israel-Gaza Conflict

Research from Benjamin Neimark, Patrick Bigger, Frederick Otu-Larbi and Reuben Larbi reviews the first 60 days of the Israel-Gaza war, as well as a wider look at war infrastructure and the carbon costs of reconstruction.



CEOBS | Checklists for assessing military emissions mitigation strategies and reporting

As more militaries publish climate mitigation strategies, we have developed checklists to evaluate action and amibtion which anyone can use. If your country's Ministry of Defence has published a climate mitigation strategy or chooses to report their emissions, you can use the checklists too. If you do, make sure you get in touch and let us know your findings!

UNFCCC Global Stocktake | Military and Conflict Emissions

This submission to the Global Stocktake calls for the inclusion of military and conflict greenhouse gas emissions in the UNFCCC'S Global Stocktake process for the Paris Agreement. This was supported by Tipping Point North South, Conflict and Environment Observatory, Scientists for Global Responsibility, Costs of War, Transform Defence, Concrete Impacts, Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom, Zoï Environment Network…

Joint call | NATO: Commit to credible climate action

A joint call ahead of COP27 urging NATO to make its methodology for counting emissions public, commit to thorough and transparent reporting, and pledge to cut military emissions.



CEOBS | National climate action plans must include military emissions

COP28 agreed that countries must submit new Nationally Determined Contributions by February 2025. These transparent national plans for climate action play an important role in defining a country’s commitment to tackling the climate crisis but at present military emissions are largely absent from them. As Linsey Cottrell finds, failing to include them this year could delay their inclusion until 2030.

CEOBS | Ticking boxes: are military climate mitigation strategies fit for purpose?

Militaries are increasingly publishing climate mitigation strategies, so we have developed checklists to evaluate them. In this post Linsey Cottrell introduces the checklists, reviews UK and US strategies, and also compares military decarbonisation efforts with those of another large and challenging sector: healthcare.

CEOBS | Does reporting military emissions data really threaten national security?

While a few militaries report their greenhouse gas emissions, others do not, often citing national security concerns. In this post, Linsey Cottrell compares this to commercial confidentiality practice, gives examples of military datasets available in the public domain and questions whether the security implications of military emissions reporting are real or imagined.



The Guardian | Revealed: repairing Israel’s destruction of Gaza will come at huge climate cost

Nina Lakhani covers the updated analysis of the emissions from 120 days of Israel-Gaza for The Guardian.

The Atlantic | Military Emissions Are Too Big to Keep Ignoring

Zoë Schlanger shines a light on hidden military emissions within the UNFCCC and reports from COP28.

The Guardian | The climate costs of war and militaries can no longer be ignored

CEOBS' Director Doug Weir writes for the Guardian on the hidden climate impact of militaries and war, and what needs to change.



QMUL | Confronting military greenhouse gas emissions

This interactive policy brief details the intersecting realities of carbon poullution, militaries, and what this signifies for greenhouse gas emissions, ultimately affecting climate change.  

IGGAW | Climate damage caused by Russia’s war in Ukraine

According to the study, the first 24 months of Russia’s full-scale invasion of Ukraine led to an increase in emissions of 175 million tons of carbon dioxide. Applying the Social Cost of Carbon, the report also proposes that total climate damage caused amounts to $32 billion.

European Commission | Navigating Climate Change in Defence

This joint guide from the European Commission Joint Research Centre, European Commission Joint Research Centre and European Defence Agency maps out how Cheifs of Defence Staff can incorporate climate change considerations into their planning, including climate action and emissions reductions.



DW Planet A | The biggest blindspot of climate change

This informative and accessible video from DW explores military emissions as one of the biggest blindspots of climate change, and what we can do to change this.

COP28 | Climate Damage of Russia’s war in Ukraine and the knowledge gap on conflict and military emissions

At COP28, speakers from the Conflict and Environment Observatory, Ecoaction, Ukraine, and Initative on the GHG Accounting of War outline the state of military emissions reporting and the environmental and climate imapacts of Russia's invasion of Ukraine, as well as the ambition of a green recovery.

MEG Conference 2023 | Panel 3: Understanding wartime emissions: lessons from Ukraine

Russia’s war in Ukraine has contributed to unprecedented interest in the emissions footprint of armed conflicts, encouraging novel efforts to comprehensively estimate its emissions. Emissions from the war zone, and its impact on emissions elsewhere were estimated for the first 12 months of war. This panel will discuss the initial results, and the numerous challenges in determining impact emissions sources,…